The first of the new fusion facilities that are being built in Australia is the Akatsuki nuclear reactor at Akatsuki-1 in western Queensland, the first nuclear plant in Australia to be designed and built entirely in fusion.
Akatsuki was constructed using an additive manufacturing process, rather than traditional manufacturing techniques.
A collaboration between Akatsuki and the University of Queensland and the Queensland Institute of Technology (QIT) in Townsville has used the process to develop the reactor.
A consortium of Australian universities and other institutions are collaborating on a second facility, known as the Tokamak, at the Bali Nuclear Power Station, also in Western Queensland.
Tokamaks have a similar reactor design to Akatsuki, but the reactors are much smaller, less expensive and are designed to be cooled to a lower temperature.
Tokamskys will have about 25,000 tonnes of fuel, equivalent to the UK’s planned 50,000 tonne Hinkley Point C nuclear plant.
It will be one of the largest in the world, providing nearly 25% of Australia’s electricity, while generating only around 0.5% of the country’s CO2 emissions.
The Tokamakhys reactors are expected to begin generating power around 2020.
In terms of economics, fusion reactors are cheaper than traditional reactors because the reactions between fuel and water do not need to be conducted in huge reactors.
It is estimated that a fusion reactor will generate $10-15 billion in economic benefits by 2050, compared with traditional nuclear power.
The main challenge for fusion is the cost.
The fuel is used to make the neutrons which are then used to generate the nuclear reaction, while the water is used as a moderator.
It costs about $2,000 to produce a kilogram of uranium.
It takes $3,000 of water to make a kilo of plutonium, the fuel for a nuclear bomb.
Fusion energy has the potential to reduce the cost of nuclear power for decades, but its scale has yet to be proven.
There is an emerging technology called superconducting magnets which could revolutionise fusion power, but so far it is difficult to scale up large reactors.
There are also other technologies that could reduce the costs of fusion energy but need to prove their technology, and the economics of doing so are still being worked out.
However, the world’s biggest fusion power plant, the Japan’s Tokamake plant, is under construction at the Tokaimura facility in the northern province of Honshu.
Tokaimuras power plant will produce around 80% of Japan’s electricity.
Tokammak reactors could generate more than 80% in Australia and could provide power to cities such as Sydney and Melbourne.
But Tokamakes are unlikely to be ready for power stations for a decade or more.
The energy from a Tokamaki reactor is then stored in molten salt tanks, where it is cooled to temperatures above minus 100 degrees Celsius, about three degrees below absolute zero.
Tokiamak power stations have been operating for just under a decade.
But the technology is far from ready.
One of the biggest challenges for fusion energy is the price.
Fusion reactors are cheap, but they do not deliver the economic benefits as traditional nuclear plants do.
Tokami and Tokamakers power stations were both built by the Japanese government to supply electricity to Tokyo, the largest city in the country.
They were designed to produce around 15% of Tokyo’s electricity and are expected in 2023.
Tokampaks reactors are more expensive, but because they are built in a special way, the cost is lower than the costs associated with other types of reactors.
Tokomak power plants are expected be ready in 2020, although it is still far from being practical to generate enough electricity from the two power stations to power the entire city of Tokyo.
However the technology could be used to provide electricity to the whole of Australia in the future.
This will be a big advantage for the renewable energy sector.
A number of fusion plants are being planned and are already operating in Japan, including a facility at Tanegashima in southern Japan.
The Tanegsaku power plant is being built by Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, and will generate up to 70% of Tanegas power in Japan.
Tanegesaku is the first of a number of reactors being built to produce power in Australia.
There has been a lot of excitement around the construction of the AEMB reactor at the University, but there is no specific date for when the project is expected to be completed.
It could be a long time before the first AEMBs are built, but in the longer term, there are many other potential nuclear power stations that could be built in the near future.
One potential site is the Queensland Power Station in Queensland, which has the capacity to supply 1.5GW of electricity to a large region of the state.
AEMBS could provide about one-third of the electricity needed by the entire state.
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